Detecting In-Flight Page Changes with Web Tripwires
"While web pages sent over HTTP have no integrity guarantees, it is commonly assumed that such pages are not modified in transit. In this paper, we provide evidence of surprisingly widespread and diverse changes made to web pages between the server and client. Over 1% of web clients in our study received altered pages, and we show that these changes often have undesirable consequences for web publishers or end users. Such changes include popup blocking scripts inserted by client software, advertisements injected by ISPs, and even malicious code likely inserted by malware using ARP poisoning."